*The papers listed below pertain to map turtles or have been referenced in map turtle publications.


Babitzke, J. B.  1992.  An analysis of population size of
Graptemys caglei. West Texas State University, Canyon. Unpublished Masters Thesis, 47p.

Bertyl, J. and F. C. Killebrew. 1983. An osteological comparison of Graptemys caglei haynes and McKown and Graptemys versa Stejneger (testudines, Emydidae). Herpetologica 39: 375 – 382.


Cagle, F. R. 1954. Two new species of the genus Graptemys. Tulane Studies in Zoology 11:167-186.

Cairns, N.A., L. J. Stoot., G. Blouin-Demers,  and S. J. Cooke. 2013. Refinement of bycatch reduction devices to exclude freshwater turtles from commercial fishing nets. Endangered Species Research 22:251-261.

Collins, D., and P. V. Lindeman. 2006. The influence of body size and trophic morphology on the size of molluscan prey of female Texas map turtles (Graptemys versa). Herpetological Review 37:416-418.


Ecksdine, V. 1985. Meteorological influence on fall basking of the map turtle, Graptemys geographica, in a north temperate stream. Bulletin of the Chicago Herpetological Society 20:82-85.

Edgren, R. A., M. K. Edgren, and L. H. tiffany. 1953. Some North American turtles and their epizoophytic algae. Ecology 34:733-740.

Ehret, D. J., and J. R. Borque. 2011. An extinct map turtle Graptemys (Testudines, Emydidae) from the late Pleistocene of Florida. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 31:575-587.

Elsey, R. M. 2006. Food habits of Macrochelys temminckii (alligator snapping turtle) from Arkansas and Louisiana. Southeastern Naturalist 5:443-452.

Emerson, D. N. 1967. Preliminary study of the liver lip[ids and glycogen, and blood sugar levels in the turtle Graptemys pseudogeographica (Gray) from South Dakota. Herpetologica 23:68-70.

Enge, K. M., and G. E. Wallace. 2008. Basking survey of map turtles (Graptemys) in the Choctowhatchee and Ocklockonee Rivers, Florida and Alabama. Florida Scientist 71:310-322.

Ennen, J.R., B. R. Kreiser, C. P. Qualls, and J. E. Lovich. 2010. Morphological and molecular reassessment of Graptemys oculifera and Graptemys flavimaculata. Journal of Herpetology 44:9–12.

Ennen, J.R., J.E. Lovich, B.R. Kreiser, W.W. Selman, II, and C.P. Qualls. 2010. Genetic and morphological variation between populations of the Pascagoula Map Turtle (Graptemys gibbonsi) in the Pearl and Pascagoula Rivers with description of a new species. Chelonian Conservation and Biology 9:98–113.

Ennen, J.R., M.E. Kalis, A.L. Patterson, B.R. Kreiser, J.E. Lovich, J. Godwin, and C.P. Qualls. 2014. Clinal variation or validation of a subspecies? A case study with the Graptemys nigrinoda complex (Testudines: Emydidae). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 111:810-822.

Ennen, J. E., Lindeman, P. V. and J. E. Lovich. 2015. Intersexual allometry differences and ontogenetic shifts of coloration patterns in two aquatic turtles, Graptemys oculifera and Graptemys flavimaculata. Ecology and Evolution 5(11):2296-2305.

Ennen, J. E., W. Selman, and B. R. Kreiser. 2007. Graptemys gibbonsi (Pascagoula map turtle): Diet. Herpetological Review 38:200.

Ernst, C. H. 1973. The distribution of the turtles of Minnesota. Journal of Herpetology 7:42-47.

Ernst, C. H. 1974. Observations on the courtship of male Graptemys pseudogeographica. Journal of Herpetology 8:377-378.

Ernst, C. H., and R. W. Barbour. 1972. Turtle of the United States. University of Kentucky, Lexington.

Ernst, C. H., and R. W. Barbour. 1989. Turtles of the World. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington D.C.

Ernst, C. H. and J. E. Lovich. 2009. Turtles of the United States and Canada, 2nd edition. John Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, MD.

Ernst, C. H., J. E. Lovich and R. W. Barbour. 1994. Turtles of the United States and Canada. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington D. C.

Ernst, E. M., and C. H. Ernst. 1977. Synopsis of helminths endoparasitic in native turtles of the United States. Bulletin of the Maryland Herpetological Society 13:1-75.

Etchberger, C. R., M. A. Ewert, J. B. Philips, and C. E. Nelson. 2002. Carbon dioxide influences environmental sex determination in two species of turtles. Amphibia-Reptilia 23:169-175.

Evermann, B. W., and H. W. Clark. 1916. The turtles and batrachians of Lake Maxinkuckee region. Proceedings of the Indiana Academy of Science 1916:472-518.

Ewert, M. A. 1989. Field Survey of the False Map Turtle Group and the Hieroglyphic Cooter in Southwestern Indiana. Unpublished Report to he Indiana Department of Natural Resources Division of Fish and Wildlife Non-game and Endangered Wildlife Program, Indianapolis.

Ewert, M. A., J. S. Doody, and J. L. Carr. 1989. Graptemys ouachitensis sabinensis (Sabine map turtle). Reproduction. Herpetological Review 35:382-383.

Ewert, M. A., C. R. Etchberger, and C. E. Nelson. 2004. Turtle sex-determining modes and TSD patterns, and some TSD pattern correlates. Pages 21-32 in N. Valenzuela and V. Lance (Eds.), Temperature-Dependent Sex Determination in Vertebrates. Smithsonian Books, Washington D.C.

Ewert, M. A., D. R. Jackson, and C. E. Nelson. 1994. Patterns of temperature-dependent sex determination in turtles. Journal of Experimental Zoology 270:3-15.

Ewert, M. A., P. C. H. Pritchard, and G. E. Wallace. 2006. Graptemys barbouri – Barbour’s map turtle. Chelonian Research Monographs 3:260-272.


Fehrenbach, A. K., I. Locque, S. L. McFadden, C. Huntzinger, E. Lyons, S. H. Shively, W. Selman, and P. V. Lindeman. 2016 [2017]. Habitat-related variation in body size and reproductive output and an examination of reproductive allometry in the Sabine map turtle (Graptemys sabinensis) across three river drainages. Copeia 104:458–468.

Flaherty, N. C. 1982. Home Range, Movement, and Habitat Selection in a Population of Map Turtle, Graptemys geographica (Le Sueur), in Southwestern Quebec. Unpublished M. S. thesis, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

Flaherty, N. C., and J. R. Bider. 1984. Physical structures and the social factor as determinants of habitat use by Graptemys geographica in southwestern Quebec. American Midland Naturalist 111:259-266.

Folkerts, G. W. and R. H. Mount. 1969. New subspecies of the turtle Graptemys nigrinoda Cagle. 1969:677 – 682.

Folkerts, G. W. and R. H. Mount. 1970. Reply to H. L. Freeman’s comments on: A new subspecies of turtle: Graptemys nigrinoda Cagle. Herpetological Review 2(3):3-4.

Fontenot, C. L., Jr. 2004. Cajun-french  common names for Louisiana amphibians and reptiles. Herpetological Review 35:337-338.

Fratto, Z. W., V. A. Barko, and J. S. Scheibe. 2008. Development and efficacy of a bycatch reduction device for Wisconsin-type fyke nets deployed in freshwater systems. Chelonian Conservation and Biology 7:205-212.

Fratto, Z. W., V. A. Barko, P. R. Pitts, and S. L. Sheriff. 2008. Evaluation of turtle exclusion device and escapement devices for hoop-nets. Journal of Wildlife Management 72:1628-1633.

Freedberg, S., M. A. Ewert, and C. E. Nelson. 2001. Environmental effects on fitness and consequences for sex allocation in a reptile with environmental sex determination. Evolutionary Ecology Research 3:953-967.

Freedberg, S., M. A. Ewert, B. J. Ridenhour, M. Neiman, and C. E. Nelson. 2005. Nesting fidelity and molecular evidence for natal homing in the freshwater turtle, Graptemys kohnii, Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 272:1345-1350.

Freedburg, S., and E. M. Myers. 2012. Cytonuclear equilibrium following interspecific introgression in a turtle lacking sex chromosomes. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 106:405-417.

Freedburg, S., A. L. Stumpf, M. A. Ewert, and C. E. Nelson. 2004. Developmental environment has long-lasting effects of behavioral performance in two turtles with environmental sex determination. Evolutionary Ecology Research 6:739-747.

Freeman, H. L. 1970. A comment on: A new subspecies of the turtle Graptemys nigrinoda Cagle. Herpetological Review 2(1):3.

Frum, W. G. 1947. Graptemys geographica in West Virginia. Copeia 1947:211.

Funk, D. J., and K. E. Omland. 2003. Species-level paraphyly and polyphyly: Frequency, causes and consequences, with insights from animal mitochondrial DNA. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 34:397-423.

Fuselier, L. and D. Edds. 1994. Habitat partitioning among three species sympatric species of map turtle, genus Graptemys. Journal of Herpetology 28:154-158.


Gaffney, E. S., and P. A. Meylan. 1988. A phylogeny of turtles. Pages 157-219. in M. J. Benton (Ed.) The Phylogeny and Classification of the Tetropods, Volume 1: Amphibians, Reptiles, Birds. Clarendon Press, Oxford, United Kingdom.

Garrett, J. M. and D. G. Barker. 1987. A Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians. Austin, Texas Monthly Press.


Hartson, C. A., E.L. Ilgen, O. S. Zaleski, and P. V. Lindeman. 2014. Effects of channelization on Sabine map turtle habitat in the Mermentau River drainage, Louisiana: use of original vs. new channels. Southeastern Naturalist 13:119–127.

Haynes, D.  and R. R. McKown. 1974. A new species of map turtle (genus Graptemys) from the Guadalupe River system in Texas. Tulane Studies in Zoology and Botany 18:143 – 152.


Ilgen, E. L., C.A. Hartson, O. S. Zaleski, and P. V. Lindeman. 2014. Map turtles of the Mermentau: status surveys of forgotten populations. Chelonian Conservation and Biology 13:1–8.


Jones, R. L. 1996. Home range and seasonal movements of the turtle Graptemys flavimaculata. Journal of Herpetology 30:376-385.

Jones, R. L. and W. Selman. 2009. Graptemys oculifera (Baur 1890) – Ringed map turtle, ringed sawback. In A. G. J. Rhodin, P. C. H. Pritchard, vanDijk P. P., R. A. Saumure, K. A. Buhlmann, J. B. Iverson, R. A. Mittermeier (Eds). Conservation Biology of Freshwater Turtles and Tortoises: A Compilation Projection of the IUCN/SSC Tortoise and Freshwater Turtle Specialist Group. Chelonian Research Monographs No. 5, pp -033.1-033.8.


Killebrew, F. C. 1991a. A petition for threatened status listing of Graptemys caglei (Testudines, Emydidae). Letter to U. S.  Fish and Wildlife Service, Corpus Christi Ecological Services Field Office. April 8, 1991, 15 p.

Killebrew, F. C. 1991b. Habitat characteristics and feeding ecology of Graptemys caglei within the proposed Cuero and Lindenau Reservoir sites. Unpublished report prepared for Texas Parks and Wildlife Department under interagency contract with the Texas Water Development Board, 15 p.

Killebrew, F. C. 1992. U. S. Fish & Wildlife Service Scope. A synopsis of information on Graptemys caglei. Unpublished report for U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Austin, Texas, 10 p.

Killebrew, F. C. and J. B. Babitzke. 1996. Population analysis and nesting study of Cagle’s map turtle. Unpublished Report to the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, Washington D.C.


Lahanas, P. N. 1982. Aspects of the Life History of the Southern Black-knobbed sawback, Graptemys nigrinoda delticola Folkerts and Mount. Unpublished M. S. thesis, Auburn University, Auburn, AL.

Lamb, T., C. Lydeard, R. B. Walker, and J. W. Gibbons. 1994. Molecular systematics of map turtles (Graptemys): A comparison of mitochondrial restriction site versus sequence data. Systematic Biology 43:543-559.

Lehmann, W. 1979. Food habits exhibited in Graptemys caglei and Graptemys versa. Unpublished honor’s thesis. West Texas State University, Canyon, Texas. 19 p.

Lindeman, P. V.  1998. Of deadwood and map turtles (Graptemys): An analysis of species status for five species in three river drainages using replicated spotting-scope counts of basking turtles. Linnaeus Fund research report. Chelonian Conservation and Biology 3:137-141.

Lindeman, P. V.  1999. Surveys of basking map turtles Graptemys spp. in three river drainages and the importance of deadwood abundance. Biological Conservation 88:33-42.

Lindeman, P. V.  1999. Aggressive interactions during basking among four species of emydid turtles. Journal of Herpetology 33:214-219.

Lindeman, P. V.  1999. Growth curves for Graptemys, with a comparison to other emydid turtles. American Midland Naturalist 142:141-151.

Lindeman, P. V. 2000. Evolution of the relative width of the head and alveolar surface in map turtles (Testudines: Emydidae: Graptemys). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 69:549-576.

Lindeman, P. V.  2000. Resource use of five sympatric turtle species: Effects of competition, phylogeny, and morphology. Canadian Journal of Zoology 78:992-1008.

Lindeman, P. V., and M. J. Sharkey. 2001. Comparative analyses of functional relationships in the evolution of trophic morphology in the map turtles (Emydidae: Graptemys). Herpetologica 57:313-318.

Lindeman, P. V. 2001. Investigations of the ecology of Graptemys versa and Pseudemys texana in south central Texas. Linnaeus Fund research report. Chelonian Conservation and Biology 4:223-224.

Lindeman, P. V. 2003. Sexual difference in habitat use of Texas map turtles (Emydidae: Graptemys versa) and its relationship to sexual dimorphism and dietary differences. Canadian Journal of Zoology 81:1185-1191.

Lindeman, P. V. 2003. Diagnostic characteristics in lower Tennessee River populations of the map turtles Graptemys pseudogeographica and Graptemys ouachitensis. Chelonian Conservation and Biology 4:564-568.

Lindeman, P. V. 2004. Private lands, public access, and the conservation status of Graptemys versa. Turtle and Tortoise Newsletter 7:6-8.

Lindeman, P. V. 2005. Aspects of the life history of the Texas map turtle (Graptemys versa). American Midland Naturalist 153:378-388.

Lindeman, P. V. 2006. Zebra and quagga mussels (Dreissena spp.) and other prey of a Lake Erie population of common map turtles (Emydidae: Graptemys geographica). Copeia 2006:268-273.

Lindeman, P. V. 2006. Diet of the Texas map turtle (Graptemys versa): relationship to sexually dimorphic trophic morphology and changes over five decades as influenced by an invasive mollusk. Chelonian Conservation and Biology 5:25-31.

Lindeman, P. V. 2008. Evolution of body size in the map turtles and sawbacks (Emydidae: Deirochelyinae: Graptemys). Herpetologica 64:32-46.

Lindeman, P. V. 2013. The map turtle and sawback atlas: ecology, evolution, distribution, and conservation. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman, OK.

Lindeman, P. V. 2014. A significant range extension for the Texas map turtle (Graptemys versa) and the inertia of an incomplete literature. Herpetological Conservation and Biology 9:334–341.

Lindeman, P. V. 2014. New wine in old bottles: using modified hoopnets to catch bait-averse basking turtles. Herpetological Review 45:597–600.

Lindeman, P. V. 2015. Surveys of basking turtles in the rivers of northeastern Oklahoma, with emphasis on Graptemys geographica (common map turtle). Proceedings of the Oklahoma Academy of Science 94:1–9.

Lindeman, P. V. 2016. Diets of syntopic black-knobbed sawbacks (Graptemys nigrinoda) and Alabama map turtles (Graptemys pulchra) in the Alabama River. American Midland Naturalist 175:194–205.

Lindeman, P. V. 2017. Graptemys geographica (common map turtle). Epibiont. Herpetological Review 48:177-178.

Lindeman, P. V., I. Locque, C. Huntzinger, E. Lyons, S. H. Shively, and W. Selman. 2015. Eye color and chin pattern in the turtle Graptemys pseudogeographica in the Calcasieu River drainage of Louisiana, with comparison to adjacent drainages. Herpetological Review 46:179–185.

Lindeman, P.V., J.N. Stuart, and F.C. Killebrew. 2016. Graptemys versa Stejneger 1925 — Texas map turtle. In: Rhodin, A. G. J., P. C. H. Pritchard, P. P. van Dijk, R. A. Saumure, K. A. Buhlmann, and J. B. Iverson (eds.). Conservation Biology of Freshwater Turtles and Tortoises: A Compilation Project of the IUCN/SSC Tortoise and Freshwater Turtle Specialist Group. Chelonian Research Monographs 5:093.1–093.10.

Lovich, J. E. 1985. Graptemys pulchra Baur: Alabama map turtle. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles 360:1-2.

Lovich, J. E. and J. R. Ennen. 2013. A quantitiative analysis of the state of knowledge of turtles of the United States and Canada. Amphibia-Reptilia 34:11-23.

Lovich, J. E. and C. H. Ernst. 1989. Variation in the plastral formulae of selected turtles with comments on taxonomic utility. Copeia 1989:304-318.

Lovich, J. E., J. C. Godwin, and C. J. McCoy. 2011. Graptemys ernsti Lovich and McCoy 1992 – Escambia map turtle. Chelonian Research Monographs 5:51.1 – 51.6.

Lovich, J. E. and C.  J. McCoy. 1992.  Review of the Graptemys pulchra group   (Reptiia: Testudines: Emydidae), with descriptions of two new species. Annals of the Carnegie Museum 61:293-315.

Lovich, J. E. and C.  J. McCoy. 1994a. Graptemys gibbonsi Lovich and McCoy: Pascagoula map turtle. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles 585:1-2.

Lovich, J. E. and C.  J. McCoy. 1994b. Graptemys ernsti Lovich and McCoy: Escambia map turtle. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles 586:1-2.

Lovich. J. E., W. Selman, and C. J. McCoy. 2009. Graptemys gibbonsi Lovich and McCoy 1992 – Pascagoula map turtle, Gibbons’ map turtle, Pearl River map turtle. Chelonian Research Monographs 5:29.1. – 29.8.


McCallister, C. T., Upton, S. J., and F. C. Killebrew. 1991. Coccidean parasites (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) of Graptemys caglei and Graptemys versa (Testudines: Emydidae) from Texas. Journal of Parasitology 77: 500-502.


Porter, D. A.  1990. Feeding Ecology of Graptemys caglei Haynes
and McKown in the Guadalupe River, Dewitt County, Texas.
West Texas State Univ., Canyon. Unpublished Masters Thesis, 17p.

Porter, D. A. 1992. Distribution survey on Graptemys caglei.
Unpublished report to U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service,
Austin,Texas 6 p.


Ryan, K. M., and P. V. Lindeman. 2007. Reproductive allometry in the common map turtle, Graptemys geographica. American Midland Naturalist 158:49-59.


Seigel, R. A., and R. J. Brauman. 1994. Food habits of the yellow-blotched map turtle (Graptemys flavimaculata). Museum Technical Report 28, Mississippi Museum of Natural Science, Jackson, Mississippi.

Selman, W. 2012. Interdrainage variation in population structure, shape morphology, and sexual size dimorphism in the yellow-blotched sawback, Graptemys flavimaculata. Herpetological Conservation Biology 7:427-436.

Selman, W., and P. V. Lindeman. 2015. Life history and ecology of the Pascagoula map turtle (Graptemys gibbonsi). Herpetological Conservation and Biology 10:781–800.

Selman, W., and P. V. Lindeman. 2018. Spatial, seasonal, and sexual variation in the diet of Graptemys flavimaculata, a threatened turtle of the Pascagoula river system, Mississippi, USA. Copeia 106:247-254.

Simpson, T. R. and F. R. Rose. 2007. Distribution of Cagle’s map turtle (Graptemys caglei) in the Blanco and San Marcos Rivers. Texas Journal of Science 59(3): 201 -208.

Stephens, P. R. and J. J. Wiens. 2003. Ecological diversification and phylogeny of emydid turtles. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society. 79:577-610.

Stephens, P. R. and J. J. Wiens. 2008. Testing for evolutionary trade-offs in a phylogenetic context: Ecological diversification and evolution of locomotor performance in emydid turtles. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 217:77-87.

Stephens, P. R. and J. J. Wiens. 2009. Evolution of the sexual size dimorphisms in emydid turtles: Ecological dimorphism, Rensch’s rule and sympatric divergence. Evolution 63:910-925.


Vermersch, T. G. 1992. Lizards and turtles of southcentral Texas. Eakin Press, Austin, Texas.

Vogt, R. C. 1993. Systematics of the false map turtles (Graptemys pseudogeographica complex:  Reptilia, Testudines, Emydidae). Annals of the  Carnegie Museum 62:1-46.


Ward, R., J. B. Babitzke, and F. C. Killebrew.  2013. Genetic population structure of Cagle’s map turtle (Graptemys caglei) in the Guadalupe and San Marcos rivers of Texas – A landscape perspective. Copeia 2013(4):723-728.

Wibbels, T., Killebrew, F. C., & Crews, D. P. (1991). Sex determination in Cagle’s map turtle: implications for evolution, development, and conservation. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 69(10), 2693-2696.

Wiens, J. J., C. A. Kuczynski, and P. R. Stephens. 2010. Discordant mitochondrial and nuclear gene phylogenies in emydid turtles: Implications for speciation and conservation. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 99:445 – 461.